The Montreal Process
an attempt to better quantify what sustainable forestry means and assess our progress in achieving sustainability, in 1993
twelve countries — including the United States — joined together in Montreal, Canada to discuss how sustainable
forestry might be defined and potentially measured in terms of outcomes. The product of that meeting is referred to as the
"Montreal Process." The "Montreal Process" identifies a framework of criteria and indicators for tracking progress
in forest sustainability. This framework of criteria and indicators can be used to foster discussions on the progress of achieving
Criterion 1: Conservation of Biological Diversity
Indicator 1 –Extent of area by forest type relative to total forest area.
Indicator 2- Extent of area by forest type and by age class or successional stage.
Indicator 3-Extent of area by forest type in protected area categories as defined by IUCN or
other classification systems.
Indicator 4- Extent of area by forest type in protected areas defined by age class or successional
Indicator 5- Fragmentation of forest types.
Indicator 6- Number of forest dependent species.
Indicator 7- Status (threatened, rare, vulnerable, endangered, or extinct) of forest dependent
species at risk of not maintaining viable breeding populations, as determined by legislation or scientific assessment.
Indicator 8- Number of forest dependent species that occupy a small portion of their former range.
Indicator 9- Population levels of representative species from diverse habitats monitored across
Criterion2: Maintenance of Productive
Capacity of Forest Ecosystems
Indicator 10- Area of forest land and net area of forest land available for timber production.
Indicator 11- Total growing stock of both merchantable and non-merchantable tree species on forest
land available for timber production.
Indicator 12- The area and growing stock of plantations of native and exotic species.
Indicator 13- Annual removal of wood products compared to the volume determined to be sustainable.
Indicator 14- Annual removal of non-timber forest products (e.g. fur bearers, berries, mushrooms,
game), compared to the level determined to be sustainable.
Criterion 3: Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem
Health and Vitality
Indicator 15 -Area
and percent of forest affected by processes or agents beyond the range of historic variation.
Indicator 16- Area and percent of forestland subjected to levels of specific air pollutants or
ultraviolet B that may cause negative impacts on the forest ecosystem.
Indicator 17- Area and percent of forestland with diminished biological components indicative
of changes in fundamental ecological processes and/or ecological continuity.
Criterion 4: Conservation of Soil and
Indicator 18- Area and percent of forestland with significant soil erosion.
Indicator 19- Area and percent of forestland managed primarily for protective functions such as
watersheds or flood protection.
Indicator 20- Percent of stream kilometers in forested catchments in which stream flow and timing
has significantly deviated from the historic range of variation.
Indicator 21- Area and percent of forestland with significantly diminished soil organic matter
and/or changes in other soil chemical properties.
Indicator 22- Area and percent of forestland with significant compaction or change in soil physical
properties resulting from human activities.
Indicator 23- Percent of water bodies in forest areas with significant variance of biological
diversity from the historic range of variability.
Indicator 24- Percent of water bodies in forest areas with significant variation from the historic
range of variability in pH, dissolved oxygen, levels of chemicals, sedimentation, or temperature change.
Indicator 25- Area and percent of forestland experiencing an accumulation of persistent toxic
Criterion 5: Maintenance of Forest Contribution
to Global Carbon Cycles
Indicator 26- Total forest ecosystem biomass and carbon pool and, if appropriate,by forest type,
age class, and successional stages.
Indicator 27- Contribution of forest ecosystems to the total global carbon budget,including absorption
and release of carbon.
Indicator 28- Contribution of forest products to the global carbon budget.
Criterion 6: Maintenance and Enhancement
of Long Term Mupltiple Socioeconomic Benefits to Meet the Needs of Society
Indicator 29- Value and Volume of Wood and Wood Products, Including Value Added Through Downstream
Indicator 30- Value and Quantities of Production of Non-Wood Forest Products.
Indicator 31- Supply and Consumption of Wood and Wood Products. Indicator 32 Value of Wood
and Non-Wood Products as a Percentage of GSP.
Indicator 33- Degree of Recycling of Forest Products.
Indicator 34- Supply and Consumption/Use of Non-Wood Forest Products.
Indicator 35- Forest Land Managed for General Recreation and Tourism, in Relation to the Total
Area of Forest Land.
Indicator 36- Number and Type of Facilities Available for General Recreation and Tourism.
Indicator 37- Visitor Days Attributed to Recreation and Tourism.
Indicator 38- Value of Investment in Forest Health and Management, Reforestation, Wood Processing,
Recreation, and Tourism.
Indicator 39- Level of Expenditure on Forest Related Research and Development,and Education.
Indicator 40- Extension and Use of New and Improved Technology in the Forest Industry.
Indicator 41- Rates of Return on Investment in Forests.
Indicator 42- Forest Land Managed to Protect Cultural, Social, and Spiritual Needs, in Relation
to the Total Area of Forest Land.
Indicator 43- Non-Consumptive Use Forest Values, Including Social/Cultural,Recreational, and Biological
Indicator 44- Direct and Indirect Employment in the Forest Sector, and Forest Sector Employment
as a Proportion of Total Employment.
Indicator 45- Average Wage Rates and Injury Rates in Major Employment Categories Within the Forest
Indicator 46- The Viability and Adaptability of Forest Dependent Communities, as They Respond
to Changing Economic Conditions.
Indicator 47- Area and Percent of Forest Land Used for Subsistence Purposes.
Criterion 7: Legal, Institutional and
Economic Framework for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Management
Indicator 48- The Extent to Which the Legal Framework Clarifies Property Rights, Provides for
Appropriate Land Tenure Arrangements, Recognizes Customary and Traditional Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and Provides Means
of Resolving Property Disputes by Due Process.
Indicator 49- The Extent to Which the Legal Framework Provides for Periodic Forest-Related Planning,
Assessment, and Policy Review That Recognize the Range of Forest Values, Including Coordination With Relevant Sectors.
Indicator 50- The Extent to Which the Legal Framework Provides Opportunities for Public Participation
in Policies and Decisions Related to Forests, and Supports Public Access to Information.
Indicator 51- The Extent to Which the Legal Framework Encourages.
Indicator 52- The Extent to Which the Legal Framework Provides for the Management of Forests to
Conserve Special Environmental, Cultural,Cultural, Social and/or Scientific Values.
Indicator 53- The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework Supports the Capacity to Provide
for Public Involvement Activities and Public Education, Awareness, and Extension Programs, and Make Available Forest Related
Indicator 54- The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework Supports the Capacity to Undertake
and Implement Periodic Forest-Related Planning, Assessment, and Policy Review Process, Including Cross-Sectional Planning
Indicator 55- The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework Includes the Capacity to Develop
and Maintain Human Resource Skills Across Relevant Disciplines.
Indicator 56- The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework Has the Capacity to Develop and
Maintain an Efficient Physical Infrastructure, in Order to Facilitate the Supply of Forest Products and Services and Support
Indicator 57- The Extent to Which the Institutional Framework has the Capacity to Enforce Laws,
Regulations, and Guidelines.
Indicator 58- The Extent to Which Investment and Taxation Policies and the Regulatory Environment
Recognize the Long-Term Nature of Investments in Forests, and the Extent to Which These Policies and Regulations Permit Capital
to Flow in and Out of the Forest Sector in Response to Market Signals, Non-Market Economic Valuations, and Public Policy Decisions,
in Order to Meet Long-Term Demands for Forest Products and Services.
Indicator 59- The Extent to Which the Economic Framework Supports Non-Discriminatory Trade Policies
for Forest Products.
Indicator 60- The Availability and Extent of Up-To-Date Data, Statistics, and Other Information
Important to Measuring or Describing Indicators Associated With Criteria 1-7.
Indicator 61- Scope, Frequency, and Statistical Reliability of Forest Inventories, Assessments,
Monitoring, and Other Relevant Information.
Indicator 62- Compatibility With Other Countries in Measuring, Monitoring, and Reporting on Indicators.
Indicator 63- Development of the Scientific Understanding of Forest Ecosystem Characteristics
Indicator 64- Capacity to Develop Methodologies to Measure and Integrate the Environmental and
Social Costs and Benefits of Forest Management Into Markets and Public Policies; and Also The Capacity to Reflect Forest-Related
Resource Depletion or Replenishment in National Accounting Systems.
Indicator 65- Capacity to Develop New Technologies and to Assess the Socioeconomic Consequences
Associated With the Introduction of New Technologies
Indicator 66- Capacity to Enhance the Ability to Predict the Impacts of Human Intervention on
Indicator 67- Capacity to Predict the Impacts of Possible Climate Change on Forests.
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